Hey there everybody. Attention, please, 10th graders! On Saturday February 18th you'll have special CLIL Biology Lesson prepared by me and Peeter Mehisto (University College London, Institute of Education, UK). Therefore I give a hint for the upcoming event:
Cell Parts and Organelles
- The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that separates the internal contents of the cell from its surrounding environment.
- The lysosomes are the cell’s “garbage disposal.” In plant cells, the digestive processes take place in vacuoles. Enzymes within the lysosomes aid the breakdown of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, and even worn-out organelles.
- The cell wall is a rigid covering that protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell.
- The peroxisomes are small, round organelle that contains hydrogen peroxide, oxidises fatty acids and amino acids, and detoxifies many poisons.
- The Golgi Apparatus is an eukaryotic organelle made up of a series of stacked membranes that sorts, tags, and packages lipids and proteins for distribution. Cells that engage in a great deal of secretory activity have an abundance of Golgi. Lysosomes are created by the budding of the membranes of the Golgi.
- The RER is a region of the endoplasmic reticulum that is studded with ribosomes and engages in protein modification and phospholipid synthesis.
- The SER is a region of the endoplasmic reticulum that has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface and synthesises carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; detoxifies certain chemicals (like pesticides, preservatives, medications, and environmental pollutants), and stores calcium ions.
- The chloroplasts have a double membrane envelope (composed of an outer membrane and an inner membrane). Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts.
- The mitochondria. Eukaryotic cells may contain anywhere from one to several thousand mitochondria, depending on the cell’s level of energy consumption. In addition to the aerobic generation of ATP, mitochondria have several other metabolic functions: to generate clusters of iron and sulfur that are important cofactors of many enzymes.
- The ribosomes are organelles where protein synthesis takes place.
- The nucleus is a cell organelle that houses the cell’s DNA and directs the synthesis of ribosomes and proteins
- The centrioles are the cylinders of nine triplets of microtubules each. Centrioles appear to have some role in pulling the duplicated chromosomes to opposite ends of the dividing cell. However, the exact function of the centrioles in cell division isn’t clear, because cells that have had the centrioles removed can still divide; and plant cells, which lack centrosomes, are capable of cell division.
- The vacuole in a plant cell plays a key role in regulating the cell’s concentration of water in changing environmental conditions.
See you there. Good Luck!