понедельник, 15 октября 2018 г.

Classroom Lab Work. 8th Grade. Bone, Joints, Muscles

Hey there everybody. Today we cut, cut, cut. Don't cut yourself. Go ahead!

Title: Structure of bones, muscles and joints
Purpose: to identify structure of the bone; to identify muscle fiber structure; to understand cartilage, tendons and ligaments functions.
Equipment: 
Background: Our leg is very much like that of a chicken leg including:
femur (thigh bone)
knee (hinge joint)
fibula and tibia (smaller bones of the shin)
cartilage
ligaments
These are all part of our skeletal system. Beyond that, we also have similar muscle structure, tendons, fat. We will be exploring each of these similar characteristics.

Procedure:
Part 1. Examine the chicken leg and wing.
A. Review the tissues that are visible (fat, muscle, cartilage, bone).
B. Pick up the leg and bend the joint of it or of the wing instead. Notice is a hinge joint because it only moves in one direction. 
C. (Practice!) Using your tools, carefully cut away some of the muscle to see tendons (white areas of the muscle) that connect the muscle to the bone. Tendons are part of the muscular system. Tendons are near the ends of the bones. Ligaments are more  difficult to locate. Ligaments attach the bones to other bones. Look around the joint and try to locate ligaments. Also look at the cartilage for viewing. The cartilage surrounds the bone where it would be touching another bone. Cartilage is the protective material between bones.
D. Carefully cut away the muscle, fat, tendons, and practice identifying the different parts of the muscular system.

E. Structure of the muscle (Practice!)
1. Put a piece of meat into a dissection tray.
2. Remove a few muscle fibers from the meat you have.
3. Put the fiber on a slide.
4. Put 2 drops of methyl blue compound on it.
5. Examine the fiber under the high power objective..
6. Notice the number and structure of muscle cells and their position in relation to each other.
7. Draw your observations in the RESULT section.
Part 2. Fill in the blanks.
A. The connective tissue that attaches muscles to bone is called _______________.
What is the name of the connective tissue that covers the ends of the bone? ________________
After removing the muscles, you should see bones. Which bones do you see? _____________ _______________ ________________
Notice the joint of the knee or wing. Can you see the ball and socket joint, as well? _______________

What other systems have you observed in this chicken leg other than the skeletal system?

You should be able to name at LEAST two more systems with examples of what you saw.
Important points to remember:
- cartilage is between bones
- ligaments hold bone to bone
- tendons hold muscle to bone
Part 3. Bone structure (Practice!)
Break the long bone. Examine the inside of the bone. Do you see the bone marrow? _________ Describe it
Carefully break the largest bone. Do not crush the bone. Observe the red jelly-like tissue inside the bone. Remember this is the bone marrow. Marrow produces all blood cells and platelets for use throughout our body. Red blood cells carry food and oxygen to all cells in our body. Platelets allow blood to clot rather than continue free flowing. Poke the marrow with the point of the scissors to show  the consistency of the marrow.
Result: PICTURES and do this

Conclusion:

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