Hey everyone. Here are the materials that we used during today's class. Topic: Biomes. Read the texts about different plants and biomes. Take notes during reading. Sort given graphs and plants according to their natural habitats (biomes).
1. Coniferous Forest.
Temperature: -40°C to 20°C, average summer temperature is 10°C
Precipitation: 300 to 900 millimeters of rain per year
Vegetation: Coniferous-evergreen trees (trees that produce cones and needles; some needles remain on the trees all year long)
Location: Canada, Europe, Asia, and the United States
Other: Coniferous forest regions have cold, long, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; well-defined seasons, at least four to six frost-free months
Example: Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada
2. Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperature: -30°C to 30°C, yearly average is 10°C, hot summers, cold winters
Precipitation: 750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year
Vegetation: Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses
Location: Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan
Other: Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change colour in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters.
Example: Staunton, Virginia, United States
Temperature: Average of 38°C (day), average of -3.9°C (night)
Precipitation: About 250 mm of rain per year
Vegetation: Cacti, small bushes, short grasses
Location: Between 15° and 35° latitude (North and South of the equator); examples are Mojave, Sonoran, Chihuahua, and Great Basin (North America); Sahara (Africa); Negev (Middle East); and Gobi (Asia)
Other: Perennials survive for several years by becoming dormant and flourishing when water is available. Annuals are referred to as ephemerals because some can complete an entire life cycle in weeks.
Example: El-Oasr el-Akhdar, Egypt
Temperature: Dependent on latitude, yearly range can be between -20°C to 30°C
Precipitation: About 500 to 900 mm of rain per year
Vegetation: Grasses (prairie clover, salvia, oats, wheat, barley, coneflowers)
Location: The prairies of the Great Plains of North America, the pampas of South America, the veldt of South Africa, the steppes of Central Eurasia, and surrounding the deserts in Australia
Other: Found on every continent except Antarctica
Example: Ingeniera White, Argentina
Temperature: 20°C to 25°C, must remain warm and frost-free
Precipitation: 2,000 to 10,000 mm of rain per year
Vegetation: Vines, palm trees, orchids, ferns
Location: Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
Other: There are two types of rainforests, tropical and temperate. Tropical rainforests are found closer to the equator and temperate rainforests are found farther north near coastal areas. The majority of common houseplants come from the rainforest.
Example: Campa Pita, Belize
Temperature: Hot and dry in the summer, cool and moist in the winter
Precipitation: 200 to 1,000 mm of rain per year
Vegetation: Aromatic herbs (sage, rosemary, thyme, oregano), shrubs, acacia, chamise, grasses
Location: West coastal regions between 30° and 40° North and South latitude
Other: Plants have adapted to fire caused by the frequent lightning that occurs in the hot, dry summers.
Example: Middelburg, South Africa
Temperature: -40°C to 18°C
Precipitation: 150 to 250 mm of rain per year
Vegetation: Almost no trees due to short growing season and permafrost; lichens, mosses, grasses, sedges, shrubs
Location: Regions south of the ice caps of the Arctic and extending across North America, Europe, and Siberia (high mountain tops)
Other: Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturia, meaning "treeless plain"; it is the coldest of the biomes
Example: Yakutsk, Russia
- The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) is a medium-sized evergreen shrub. It has small pointed green leaves with a waxy coating. These leaves have adapted to conserve water and survive high temperatures. The creosote bush competes aggressively with other plants for water in the soil and grows well in dry conditions. It can survive temperature fluctuations of 21°C from day to night.
- The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is a deciduous tree, meaning that it loses its leaves in the winter. In early spring, the dogwood produces white or pink petals, and in late spring it has red berries. It grows best in moist soil, and does not handle drought well. The flowering dogwood will not survive a climate where the temperature regularly drops below -26°C.
- Bluestem grasses (Andropogon gerardi) are warm season grasses. They are very leafy at the base with some leaves on the stem. They are commonly known as "Turkey Foot Grass" because the seed heads branch out resembling the foot of a turkey. Bluestem grasses have adapted to moderately well-drained to excessively-drained soils. They thrive in warm temperatures and moderate amounts of rain. They tolerate harsh conditions and are found in both moist and dry open spaces. During the cold winters they turn brown and go dormant.
- Lichens are unlike any other organism on earth. Their structure is unique: a symbiosis of two organisms — a fungus and algae. Lichens are not plants, so they do not produce seeds. Lichens can survive in some of the most barren and severe regions of the world. They tolerate extreme cold and dry conditions through dormancy and the ability to recover quickly when conditions are favorable. Although lichens can grow in regions with more rainfall, they actually require little rainfall to survive.
- Orchids are a type of epiphyte (a plant that grows on another plant). They typically grow on tree trunks or branches, and rely on the tree for support, but not food. Orchids require a constant warm temperature and humid air. They also require lots of water to build up in the hollows of tree branches and bark where they live for their roots to absorb. They grow very slowly and cannot withstand dry spells or temperature fluctuations.
- The spruce (Picea) is an evergreen with short, blue-green, waxy leaves called needles. The waxy coating on the needles helps evergreen trees conserve water during the very cold winters where they live, when soil water is frozen and not available for the trees to use. The spruce is a conifer, which means that it produces seed cones instead of flowers. It grows slowly and is easily killed by fire.
- White Sage (Salvia apiana) is a shrub that prefers to grow on well-drained slopes in full sunlight. It grows well in semi-arid conditions. It can withstand temperatures up to 40°C. White Sage absorbs the sun's energy to create aromatic oils that keep animals from eating the leaves.